Introduction The increased frequency of surgical as well as diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures involving the kidneys and the renal vasculature has shown a definite demand for a re-evaluation of the renal arterial anatomy and its variations.
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the anatomy of the renal arterial pattern in a Sri Lankan population. Methodology 382 human cadaver kidneys were analyzed for its arterial anatomy.
Results Of the 382 kidneys analysed, single renal arteries were found in 260 specimens (68.06%) and 122 (31.94%) had multiple renal arteries. The incidence of multiple renal arteries in males were 30.68% and 34.75%. in females. A higher number of multiple renal arteries were found on the left, ie: 70 out of 122 (57.38%) compared to 52 out of 122 (42.62%) on the right. A superior polar artery was given off from the main renal arteries in 86 kidneys (22.51%) and an inferior polar artery was noted arising from the main renal artery in 29 kidneys (7.59%). Pre-hilar segmental branching was seen in 111 (29.06%) of the main renal arteries.
Conclusion 31.9% of our study population had multiple renal arteries. There was no significant difference with regard to the incidence of multiple renal arteries, between the two sexes nor on the sides. Prior knowledge of possible variations that may exist is important for the diagnostic and interventional radiologists, transplant surgeons and urologists. No detailed study has been done in a Sri Lankan population and in this regard our findings may provide some insight to the practising clinician in Sri Lanka.