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Involvement of Parathyroid Gland in COVID-19


R. Niranjan

University of Jaffna, LK
About R.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine
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Introduction: Parathyroid glands are yellow brown, small and soft. Typically four parathyroids are present in posterior surface of thyroid. Parathyroid’s numeral, size and site is inconstant. Corona virus disease-19(COVID-19) is a major problem all over world and aim of this study is to discuss possible involvement of parathyroid in COVID-19.

Materials and methods: The previous studies were used for this review study.

Results and discussions: The COVID-19 mainly causes pulmonary injury and respiratory failure. Virus was chiefly detected in respiratory pathway, gastrointestinal tract, sweat gland, pituitary, pancreas, adrenal, renal, parathyroid, liver and cerebrum. Nearly 65% of COVID-19 patients had hypocalcaemia. Advanced age and hypocalcaemia were bad prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients. Hypocalcaemia might be due to vitamin-D deficit, decreased bowel absorption of calcium, diminished secretion or response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The PTH rises serum calcium by discharge calcium by osteoclastic activity, calcium reabsortion in nephron. Vitamin-D encourage reabsorption of dietary calcium. Thus inadequate Vitamin-D excites parathyrood to discharge more PTH.


Normal and abnormal parathyroids are identified by their size, form, consistency and histological judgments. There was association between size of parathyroid and PTH level. Glands of black populations were longer than white groups. Larger parathyroid secrets more PTH and might has greater number of chief cells. Microscopically quantity of fatty tissues and oxyphil cells rise in elders. Both transitional and oxyphil cells secrets PTH to extensive parathyroid stimulation.

Conclusion: Size of all parathyroids, patient’s age, oxyphil cells amount, ethnicity, amount of PTH and Vitamin-D determines the serum calcium level in COVID-19.

How to Cite: Niranjan R. Involvement of Parathyroid Gland in COVID-19. Sri Lanka Anatomy Journal. 2021;5(2):4–8. DOI:
Published on 30 Dec 2021.
Peer Reviewed


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